are defined as “ecosystems’ contributions to the non-material benefits that arise from human-ecosystem relationships” (Chan et al., 2012). Further, cultural ecosystem services are understood as “processes and entities that people actively create and express through interactions with ecosystems” (Fish et al., 2016), e.g. using the environment for recreation, watching plants and animals.

An alternative definition is available on OpenNESS glossary (2016).


Chan, K.M.A., T. Satterfield and J. Goldstein, 2012. Rethinking ecosystem services to better address and navigate cultural values. Ecol. Econ., 74: 8-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.11.011
Fish, R., A. Church and M. Winter, 2016. Conceptualising cultural ecosystem services: a novel framework for research and critical engagement. Ecosyst. Serv., 21: 208-217. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.002