are the objects from ecosystems that people value through experience, use or consumption, whether that value is expressed in economic, social or personal terms. Note that the use of this term here goes well beyond a narrow definition of goods simply as physical items bought and sold in markets, and includes objects that have no market price (e.g. outdoor recreation) (OpenNESS glossary, 2016).

Some schools of thought equate ‘goods’ and ‘services’ (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; von Haaren et al. 2014), others equate ‘goods’ and benefits’ (UK NEA, 2011).


Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Chapter 2: Ecosystems and their services. in Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: A Framework for Analysis. Washington DC: Island Press, 21.
UK National Ecosystem Assessment, 2011. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
Von Haaren, C., C. Albert, J. Barkmann, R. de Groot, J.H. Spangenberg, C. Schröter-Schlaack and B. Hansjürgens, 2014. From explanation to application: introducing a practice-oriented ecosystem services evaluation (PRESET) model adapted to the context of landscape planning and management. Landscape Ecology 29, 1335-1346. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-014-0084-1