refers to the concept of information asymmetry between principal (e.g. state) and agent (e.g. farmer) which can lower environmental effectiveness of schemes (see also moral hazard).
This could be the case when land managers find themselves unable to deliver the environmental goods they have contracted to deliver. A lack of knowledge can be resolved by advice and training programmes or peer-to-peer information exchange (Franks, 2011).


Franks, J.R., 2011. The collective provision of environmental goods: a discussion of contractual issues, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 54:5, 637-660. DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2010.526380