To measure the environmental effect of a scheme a distinction will be made between performance and outcomes. Performance relates to the uptake of the schemes and the effects on agricultural practices as described in the agreements. The outcomes relate to the effects of farming on the quality of the environment and subsequently the provision of ecosystem services (ES). The impact model is thus, following Primdahl et al. (2003):
1) implemented AECM
2) adapted farming practices
3) effects on the adapted farming practices on environmental quality.


Primdahl, J., Peco, B., Schramek, J., Andersen, E., and Oñate, J. J. (2003). Environmental effects of agri-environmental schemes in Western Europe. Journal of Environmental Management, 67 (2), 129-138. DOI: 10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00192-5.