are the direct and indirect contributions of nature to human well-being (TEEB 2010; CICES classification). Ecosystem services include the terms ecosystem goods and services (Albert et al., 2016), and environmental services. In many cases, the use of ES requires human input (UK NEA, 2011). Such human input includes, e.g., fertiliser, technology or knowledge.

See also: Nature Contributions to People (NCPs)


Albert, C., A. Bonn, B. Burkhard, (..) and H. Wustemann, 2016. Towards a national set of ecosystem service indicators: Insights from Germany. Ecological Indicators 61 (1) 38-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.08.050
TEEB, 2010. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity Ecological and Economic Foundations. Edited by Pushpam Kumar. Earthscan: London and Washington.
UK National Ecosystem Assessment, 2011. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.