are the services that humans render to each other to maintain or increase certain ecosystem services (Karsenty, 2013). Environmental services are a sub-group of ecosystem services that are characterised by externalities (FAO, 2007).

See also: Ecosystem services (ES)


FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2007. The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA). Paying farmers for Environmental Services. FAO Agriculture Series No. 38.
Karsenty A., 2013. On the Nature of Payments for Environmental Services (PES). Revue du MAUSS, 42: 261-270. DOI: 10.3917/rdm.042.0261