refers to “all the contributions, both positive and negative, of living nature (diversity of organisms, ecosystems, and their associated ecological and evolutionary processes) to people’s quality of life” (Díaz et al. 2015). This concept differs from ecosystem services (ES) in the sense that while ES are provided by nature, NCPs are jointly produced by social-ecological processes and require human intervention to deliver them (Bruley et al., 2021).

See also: ecosystem services (ES)


Bruley, E., Locatelli, B. and Lavorel, S., 2021. Nature’s contributions to people: coproducing quality of life from multifunctional landscapes. Ecology and Society 26 (1):12. DOI: 10.5751/ES-12031-260112
Díaz, S., S. Demissew, J. Carabias, C. Joly, M. Lonsdale, N. Ash (…) and D. Zlatanova, 2015. The IPBES conceptual framework — connecting nature and people. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14:1-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2014.11.002