Asset-building schemes relating to Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) aim to restore an area’s environmental services, for example (re)planting trees in a treeless, degraded landscape. Conservation-opportunity and protection costs aside, PES schemes may here also compensate the direct costs of establishing ES, often through investments within agricultural systems (Pagiola et al., 2004 cited by Wunder, 2005).

See also: Use-restricting schemes


Wunder, S., 2005. Payments for Environmental Services: Some Nuts and Bolts. CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 42. Centre for International Forestry Research: Bogor.