Use-restricting Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes reward providers for conservation, for capping resource extraction and land development, or for fully setting aside areas, such as for protected habitats. Here, landowners are paid for their conservation-opportunity costs, plus possibly for active protection efforts against external threats (Hardner and Rice, 2002 cited by Wunder, 2005).

See also: Asset-building schemes


Wunder, S., 2015. Revisiting the Concept of Payments for Environmental Services. Ecological Economics 117: 234–243. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.08.016