Use-restricting A PES scheme is a transparent system for the additional provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers (e.g., farmers or landowners) (Tacconi, 2012). See Wunder (2015) for an overview of de... More schemes Remuneration for current ecological achievements (e.g. biodiversity, climate or water protection) without a necessary additionality. See also: Compensation More providers for conservation, for capping resource extraction and land development, or for fully setting aside areas, such as for protected habitats. Here, landowners are paid for their conservation-opportunity costs, plus possibly for active protection efforts against external threats (Hardner and Rice, 2002 cited by Wunder, 2005).
See also: Asset-building schemes relating to Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) aim to restore an area’s environmental services, for example (re)planting trees in a treeless, degraded landscape. Conservation-opportunity and protection ... More
Wunder, S., 2015. Revisiting the Concept of Payments for are the services that humans render to each other to maintain or increase certain ecosystem services (Karsenty, 2013). Environmental services are a sub-group of ecosystem services that are characterised by externalities (FAO, 2007... More. Ecological Economics 117: 234–243. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.08.016