In environmental economics it is considered that policy-makers have two broad types of instruments available for changing consumption and production habits in society: 
1) Traditional regulatory approaches (sometimes referred to as command-and-control approaches) that set specific standards across polluters.
2) Economic incentives or market-based policies that rely on market forces to correct for producer and consumer behavior (such as pollution/ emissions taxes, subsidies, Payments for Environmental Services (PES), agri-environment-climate measures (AECM).