are contracts where consumers pay a ‘green premium’ on top of the market price for a production scheme that is certified to be environmentally friendly (Wunder, 2005).

Synonym: product-based schemes

See also: value chain approaches


Wunder, S., 2005. Payments for Environmental Services: Some Nuts and Bolts. CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 42. Centre for International Forestry Research: Bogor.